How to correctly choose honing stick (stone) and honing parameters

How to correctly choose honing stick (stone) and honing parameters

Honing stick (stone) is one of the important honing tools. According to the raw materials, it is divided into the ordinary stick (stone) and super-abrasive stick (stone): ordinary stones are made from white fused alumina, monocrystalline alumina, brown fused alumina, pink fused alumina, black silicon carbide, green silicon carbide. super-abrasive stick (stone) is made from diamond and CBN powder. According to the bond, there are the metal bond, resin bond, vitrified bond, and electroplated bond.

    Abrasive of Honing stick (stone)

AbrasiveCodeMaterials for processingApplications
Brown fused aluminaAUnhardened carbon steel and alloy steelRough honing
White fused aluminaWAHeat treated carbon steel and alloy steelFinish honing,

Semi-finish honing

Monocrystalline aluminaSABearing steel, stainless steel, and heat resistant with good toughnessRough honing,

Finish honing

Pink fused aluminaPAAll kinds of hardened and unhardened steel partsFinish honing
Black silicon carbideCCast iron, copper, aluminum, and other non-metallic materialsFinish honing
Green silicon carbideGCCast iron, copper, aluminum and etc. Used for hardened steel and hard and brittle metal and non-metallic materialsFinish
Synthetic diamondMBD6-8All kinds of steel parts, cast iron, and hard and brittle metal and non-metallic materials, such as tungsten carbide and etc.Rough honing,

Semi-finish honing

CBNCBNAll kinds of alloy steel with good toughness and high hardness and strengthRough honing,

Finish honing

In the honing process, choose correctly the specification, grit and other parameters of honing stones to meet the processing requirements of the workpiece.

honing stick honing stone

1 Selection of specification and quantity for honing stick (stone)

The specification of honing stick (stone) mainly refers to the shape and the size (Length X Width X Height). The cross-section size is that width is longer than the height, making the installation of the stick (stone) stable. Choose the honing stones with a square cross-section to extend the stick (stone) life, when honing the holes with the large diameter.

1.1 stick (stone) length

The length of the stick (stone) l depends on that of the workpiece L. If the stick (stone) is too short, the honing efficiency will be reduced. If the stick (stone) is too long, it makes the hole drum-shaped and affects the cylindricity of the hole.

1.2 Selection of Honing stick (stone) Length (Unit: mm)

Hole Length L  Honing Stone Length  l Cases
Short hole(L/D<1)L=(1/3-3/4)LHoning  cylinder hole Ø100*195, l=100
Long holeL=(1-1.2)L     l≥ length of 3 holesHoning Ø65*38, l=40

Selection of stick (stone) section dimension

The honing stick (stone) is too narrow, and it is not easy to block but it wears too fast. The honing stick (stone) is too wide, the self-sharpness is not good, and the honing heat is large, which affect the accuracy of the hole. Usually, choose wide honing stick (stone) to hone soft materials, and choose narrow honing stick (stone) to hone hard materials. When honing the steel parts, the honing stick (stone) is narrower than that used for cast iron. The honing stick (stone) may be as wide as possible when honing small hole. The stone B≤25mm when honing big hole. The width of a diamond honing stick (stone) or CBN honing stick (stone) is 1/3-1/2 of that of ordinary stone.

diamond honing stick stone

 1.2 Section Dimension and Quantity of Honing stick (stone)

Honing DiameterStones Quantity/pcsSection Dimension of StonesB*HSection Dimension of Diamond Honing StonesB*H
5-101-21.5*2.5
10-1322*1.52*1.5
13-1633*2.52*1.5
16-2434*3.03*3.0
24-3746*4.04*4.0
37-463-49*6.04*4.0
46-754-69*8.05*6.0
75-1106-810*9, 12*105*6.0
110-1906-812*10, 14*126*6.0
190-3108-1016*13, 20*20
>300>1020*20, 25*25

1.3 Selection of stick (stone) quantity

Without affecting the strength of honing head, use as many honing sticks (stone) as possible and reduce the width of honing stones properly. If the total width of honing stone is 15%-28% of the whole circumference, higher efficiency will be obtained and reduce the deformation of the hole. The quantity of honing stones can be referred to the above Figure 1.2

2 Selection of honing stone performance

2.1Abrasive selection. Details can be seen in Figure 2.1

Abrasive CodeMaterials for processingApplications
Brown fused aluminaAUnhardened carbon steel and alloy steelRough honing
White fused aluminaWAHeat treated carbon steel and alloy steelFinish honing,

Semi-finish honing

Monocrystalline aluminaSABearing steel, stainless steel, and heat resistant with good toughnessRough honing,

Finish honing

Pink fused aluminaPAAll kinds of hardened and unhardened steel partsFinish honing
Black silicon carbideCCast iron, copper, aluminum, and other non-metallic materialsFinish honing
Green silicon carbideGCCast iron, copper, aluminum and etc. Used for hardened steel and hard and brittle metal and non-metallic materialsFinish
Synthetic diamondMBD6-8All kinds of steel parts, cast iron, and hard and brittle metal and non-metallic materials, such as tungsten carbide and etc.Rough honing,

Semi-finish honing

CBNCBNAll kinds of alloy steel with good toughness and high hardness and strengthRough honing,

Finish honing

2.2 Grit Selection

2.2.1 Selection of honing stone abrasive grit

According to the selection of productivity and surface roughness required, 80#-180# is generally used for rough honing, 180#-280# is used for semi-finish honing(or for rough and finish combination), and less than W40 is used for finish honing. Details can be seen Figure 2.2.1 

CBN honing stick stone

 

2.2.1 Selection of Honing stick (stone) Abrasive Grit

 

Abrasive

 

Grit

Required Surface Roughness,Ra/μm
Hardened SteelUnhardened SteelCast IronNonferrous MetalNotes
Fused alumina

Silicon carbide

100#-180#

1.25-1.0

1.0

1.6-1.25

Fused alumina Silicon carbide240#0.63

1.0-0.8

0.63

—-

1.25-1.0

Fused alumina Silicon carbideW500.4-0.32

1.0-0.63

—-

—–

0.5-0.4

—-

0.8

Fused alumina Silicon carbideW40—-

0.32-0.25

—-

0.63-0.5

—-

0.5-0.4

—-

0.8-0.63

Green silicon carbide used for steel parts
Fused alumina Silicon carbideW28—-

0.2-0.16

—-

0.32-0.50

—-

0.32-0.25

—-

0.5-0.4

Green silicon carbide used for steel parts
Fused alumina Silicon carbideW20—-

0.16-0.10

—-

0.25-0.20

—–

0.16-0.125

—-

0.4-0.32

Green silicon carbide used for steel parts

2.2.2 Selection of super-abrasive stick (stone) grit

Under the same roughness requirement, the grain size of super-abrasive used in finish honing is 1# or 2# finer than that of ordinary abrasive, and the grain size of ordinary honing stone used for honing non-chilled steel is 1# or 2# finer than that of chilled steel. Details can be seen Figure 2.2.2

diamond honing stone ,honing sticks

2.2.2 Selection of Super-Abrasive Honing stick (stone) Grit

Selection of Super-Abrasive Honing stick (stone) Grit

Super-abrasive is suitable for all kinds of materials rough honing and finish honing. But the honing efficiency is not as good as that of ordinary abrasives when honing the roughness less 1.0 micron. As shown in the following figure.2.2.3

Selection of ordinary abrasive and super-abrasive stick (stone)

diamond CBN Honing stick stone

3 Selection of bond, concentration, and hardness

3.1 Selection of ordinary abrasive bond

Usually vitrified and resin bond is used. Vitrified bond honing stone is used for all kinds of materials for rough honing or finish honing with stable performance. Rein bond honing stone features elasticity, anti-vibration, can be used for low roughness honing under high honing pressure.

3.2 Selection of ordinary abrasive hardness

Ordinary abrasive honing stone has high durability on the good self-sharpening condition. Choose soft honing sticks (stone) for large hole honing and strong honing in mass production to process workpieces with high hardness and large honing margin. When the workpiece material is soft and surface roughness is low or honing small holes and discontinuous holes, the hard honing stone should be chosen. See the following figure.

honing stick stone

Selection of Honing stick (stone) Hardness

 

Grain Size of Stone

 

Honing Margin  (Diameter Direction/mm)

 

Stone Hardness

Steel PartsCast Iron
100#-150#0.05-0.5

0.01-0.1

L-Q

N-T

N-T

Q-Y

180#-280#0.05-0.5

0.01-0.1

J-P

L-S

L-R

Q-T

W40-W200.05-0.15

0.01-0.05

E-M

M-R

K-Q

M-T

3.2 Selection of bond and concentration of super-abrasive stone

Fine-grained powder and low concentration of resin bond honing stick (stone) are used for finish honing. Vitrified bond honing stone can be used for semi-finish honing. Generally, high concentration bronze bond honing stick (stone) is used for rough honing. High concentration is applied to electroplated diamond and CBN honing stones.

diamond and cbn honing stick stone

Selection of Bond and Concentration of Super-abrasive stick (stone)

Selection of Bond and Concentration of Super-abrasive stick (stone)

 4 Selection of honing speed

 4.1 Selection of honing speed of ordinary abrasive

MaterialHardnessHRCPeripheralSpeedv1

/(m/min)

Reciprocating Speed v2

/(m/min)

θ /(°)V1/vaApplications
Cast Iron15-50

50-65

33-60

20-33

15-3515

20

7.6

5.67

Polish honing

Polish and finish honing

Steel Parts15-35

35-50

60-60

25-30

18-25

15-18

10-2530

45

60

3.7

2.4

1.73

Finish honing

Rough,rough-finish honing

Rough, plateau honing

Nonferrous Metal50-7010-2075

90

1.3

1

Rough, heavy honing

Rough, heavy honing

4.2 Selection of super-abrasive honing speed

The peripheral speed is a max value when rough honing according to specific conditions. Its speed can be selected according to ordinary stone.

Super-abrasive Honing Speed (Unit: m/min)

Superhard MaterialHoning SpeedMaterialHoning ProcessPeripheral SpeedReciprocating Speed
Diamond Honing Stone

CBN Honing Stone

40-80

35-60

SteelRough Honing

Finish Honing

24-36

36-60

12-18

3-9

Cast IronRough Honing

Finish Honing

36-60

48-78

15-30

6-12

4.2 Selection of honing pressure

Honing pressure refers to the pressure exerted on the unit area of the workpiece surface by the feed mechanism. The grinding particle size on the workpiece is used to cut into the metal and fall off and sharpen itself.

diamond honing stick.cbn honing stone

5 Selection of Honing Pressure

Ultimate Pressure of Stone/10⁵PaHoning ProcessMaterialHoning Pressure/10⁵Pa
Vitrified Stone≤25

Resin Stone 15-25

Diamond Honing stick (stone) 30-50

CBN Honing stick (stone)20-25

Rough HoningCast Iron

Steel

5-15

8-20

Finish HoningCast Iron

Steel

2-5

4-8

Polish HoningCast Iron

Steel

0.5-1

0.5-1.5

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